The Aprilia RSV4 has always set the bar in terms of sportiness and performance, the best example of just what can be accomplished when drawing on the valuable experience of a winning Racing Department like that of Aprilia which, in its brief history, has earned 54 world titles, seven of which in the World SBK championship. Skills honed on the track and transferred to the production range, to provide everyone with the same excitement offered by Aprilia Racing motorbikes.
Unmistakeable in its design lucidity and applied technology, the RSV4 is conceived around a 65° V4 engine never before seen on a factory sport bike, and a frame which is the heir to a dynasty that has won 18 titles and 143 Grand Prix races in the 250 GP class, enhanced by the latest applied electronics systems to manage the engine and the bike’s dynamic performance. This is a true vocation of Aprilia, the first manufacturer to adopt the Ride-By-Wire multimap accelerator as standard, but above all the first to patent the APRC dynamic control system, with the exclusive features of self-calibration and wheelie control, in the spirit of maximum effectiveness at the service of ultimate performance. The Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory adds to the exclusive range of electronic equipment with semi-active suspension, developed in collaboration with Öhlins and able to offer both feeling and performance for track riders as well as comfort and usability for riders on the road.
Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory
The RSV4 project has always pursued a stated goal: to be the absolute best and fastest uncompromising superbike, the closest to Aprilia racing bikes in terms of performance and effectiveness. A premium product at the top of its category, dedicated to extremely demanding customers who want top shelf performance and refined technical equipment, provided thanks in part to the use of prestigious materials such as aluminium, titanium and carbon.
The Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory boasts exceptional performance combined with a racing frame and suspension and a series of first-rate electronic controls, added to which is the semi-active suspension.
In line with the exclusivity of this model, the Aprilia Style Centre has worked hard to make the RSV4 1100 Factory unique and recognisable even in its colours and attention to detail. The colour combinations aim to enhance the exclusive nature of prestigious materials such as carbon (utilised on the front mudguard, the side panels, the exhaust terminal guard, the aerodynamic appendages, and the new front tank cover), in contrast with the titanium finish of the street-legal Akrapovic exhaust tailpipe, the same colour as the forged aluminium wheels. For the graphics of the superstructure, an attractive total matte black look enhances all the beauty of the sculpture-like twin-spar frame and swingarm made of aluminium. Given the incredible performance achieved by the RSV4 1100 Factory, Aprilia adds aerodynamic winglets to the fairing for the first time on a factory superbike, thanks to developments made by Aprilia Racing on the RS-GP prototype from which they are derived. Their particular shape, designed in the wind tunnel, and the angle at which they are mounted exploit the downforce of the channelled air, allowing the winglets to increase stability at high speeds, which helps reduce the tendency to wheelie out of the corner, while also increasing stability during hard braking.
Chassis: greater track feeling and efficiency thanks to semi-active suspension
Aprilia always said it would never use semi-active suspension until the stopwatch demonstrated an improvement in terms of lap times. That time has come. After two years of development in close contact with Öhlins technicians and thanks also to experience gained with the Tuono V4 1100 Factory, which already adopts it, semi-active suspension now features on the top of the range RSV4 model, or rather the RSV4 1100 Factory. The Smart EC 2.0 system by Öhlins is fine tuned for the RSV4 thanks to intense development work by the Swedish and Italian technicians, who spent a great deal of time at the toughest, most testing tracks such as Imola and Mugello (but also on the road), before the stopwatch, the only judge when it comes to improvements made to the extraordinary RSV4 project, finally confirmed that the primary goal had been achieved, riding feel and performance both improved, and quantified on average by a lap speed half a second faster than the previous version of the RSV4 1100 Factory, equipped with the same Öhlins suspension, but with mechanical operation. In reality, the Öhlins suspension of the previous generation of Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory and the semi-active system are very different, also on the inside, the hydraulics fully revised so as to allow the system to work as efficiently as possible and achieve the project goals set out by Aprilia.
The control unit that governs the Öhlins Smart EC 2.0 suspension has access to all the bike’s electronic systems, meaning it is able to recognise all riding phases and therefore adapt calibration of the fork, shock absorber and steering damper hydraulics thanks to the development of an algorithm, fruit of the collaboration between Öhlins and Aprilia. As a result, this suspension better supports the rider through every riding phase on track, also offering greater feeling with the front wheel, a characteristic that was already at a high level with all previous RSV4 models. In addition, its increased ability to mirror any asphalt unevenness makes for greater ease of use and riding pleasure on the road.
The particular technology of the Smart EC 2.0 semi-active suspension system allows simple and even customised calibration of the fork and shock absorbers with two operating modes: semi-active mode and manual mode, both of which can be selected using the buttons on the handlebar. 3 maps adjust the suspension in different ways and select the semi-active contribution. A1, A2 and A3. The first, developed for use with slick tyres, particularly suits circuits with a very smooth surface; the second, for use with compound tyres and at tracks with uneven asphalt; the third is dedicated to the road, characterised by freer hydraulics that better absorb imperfections in the road surface. In manual mode, on the other hand, the 3 maps (M1, M2 and M3) provide as many predefined calibration types without semi-active assistance, in the same way as mechanical suspension systems operate. Both in the semi-active and manual mode, the user still has the possibility, within the three aforementioned logic maps, to fine tune suspension calibration based on personal taste and riding style, of particular advantage to more expert and demanding riders. The Öhlins steering damper is now also managed electronically by the Smart EC 2.0 system and can be customised to best adjust the calibration depending on that of the fork and shock absorber. The OBTi (Objective Based Tuning Interface), visible on the 4.3 inch colour TFT dashboard of the Aprilia Tuono RSV41100 , makes for intuitive setting operations. The OBTi operating logic is based on the goals the rider wants to achieve during each riding phase: for example, greater support during braking if one wants more controlled descent of the NIX fork, or greater support in acceleration if one wants greater support from the TTX shock absorber when the throttle is fully opened. There is also the possibility for manual adjustment of the shock and fork spring pre-load.
Aprilia is known as one of the best chassis manufacturers in the world and the RSV4 represents the synthesis of the technical prowess Aprilia has acquired in top level world championships. A particularity which is still exclusive to the RSV4 RR and Factory (and which has always been a characteristics of the previous generations) is the exceptional range of possible adjustments that the standard equipment chassis is able to provide. In fact, the Aprilia RSV4 is the only superbike that allows the rider to adjust the engine position in the frame, the headstock angle, the swingarm pivot and rear end height, in addition to fully adjustable suspension of course. Just like a real racing bike.
The braking system remains unaltered, already top of line with the previous version and comprising a pair of Brembo Stylema® callipers, lightweight, efficient and equipped with pads with a high-performance friction coefficient. The brake callipers can be combined with the pair of carbon air ducts (similar to those used by Aprilia Racing on the RS-GP), which let you control the operating temperature, ensuring the same exceptional braking performance even in the most extreme use. The kerb weight of the RSV4 1100 Factory with a full tank is 199 kg, thanks also to the adoption of the Akrapovic titanium exhaust tailpipe and the ultra light lithium battery.
Record performance for the Aprilia 1100 V4
The level of performance offered by the Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory is the very best a sports rider could hope for, and is combined with the character and inimitable sound of the V4 from Noale. No other engine of this kind can boast a ten-year-long history of wins. A platform capable of satisfying the needs of the most advanced sport rider and also an exceptional base around which to develop a racing bike. This is the world’s first full scale production motorcycle with a narrow high performance V4 engine, the most revolutionary and powerful engine ever built by Aprilia. An engine that is unique and unmistakeable due to its use of “total” electronics, its extremely compact size and its lightness, to which the magnesium external housings, oil sump and cylinder head covers all contribute. The narrow V architecture has made it possible to make an engine that is extremely compact lengthways which helps to centralise weights and to have an extremely high performance chassis. The timing system uses very particular kinematics: the chain camshaft drives only the intake camshaft which in turn drives the exhaust camshaft via a gear. This allows for extremely compact heads, to the advantage of the frame layout which, on the RSV4, is as compact as that of a Grand Prix bike. the crankcase is monobloc with integrated aluminium cylinder liners to ensure maximum rigidity and consistent performance. The countershaft dampens vibrations.
RSV4 1100 Factory engine displacement is achieved thanks to pistons with 81 mm bore and 52.3 mm stroke; The compression ratio is 13.6:1. The wet sump lubrication system uses an oil pump, the payload of which is able to control the temperature of the piston, thanks to the use of a double oil jet. With respect to the one litre version that equips the Aprilia RSV4 RR, the timing system boasts optimised intake valve timing, while the primary drive now counts on a longer ratio for fifth and sixth gear. The electronic injection system now uses a throttle valve support with a more aerodynamic profile in order to improve fluid-dynamic permeability. The Magneti Marelli 7SM ECU has a specific mapping with limiter management set at 13,600 rpm. This brings maximum power to 217 HP at 13,200 rpm, setting the bar in the category; maximum torque also benefits from these changes, obtaining a clear increase of more than 10% across the entire curve with respect to the 1000 cc engine and reaching a maximum value of 122 Nm at 11,000 rpm. This is a very important value that makes the RSV4 1100 Factory not only more effective in acceleration even at low speeds on track, but also more thrilling to ride on the road. Lastly, the exhaust system with specific Factory layout includes the street-legal Akrapovic titanium exhaust tailpipe as standard, significantly lighter than the unit that equips the Aprilia RSV4 RR. Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory also benefits from specific calibration of the APRC electronic controls.
APRC: APRC: from Aprilia, the cutting-edge in electronics
Aprilia RSV4 1000 RR and RSV4 1100 Factory are fitted with an exceptional dynamic controls package designed and patented by Aprilia. Each of the two models benefits from specific calibration of all controls in line with the different performance levels the two bikes can boast. APRC (Aprilia Performance Ride Control) is the well known dynamic control package derived directly from winning World Superbike technology, one of the most complete and refined currently available on the market. The particular positioning and orientation of the inertial platform that governs the operation of the system allows for optimum possibilities of detecting the bike’s dynamic conditions and, consequently, more effective electronic control strategies.
The fourth evolution of Aprilia APRC is perfectly integrated with the electronic fine tuning guaranteed by the full Ride-by-Wire throttle control which is completely built-in and requires no other components for electronic throttle valve management. This provides clear benefits in terms of weight (compared to a traditional system, the savings can be quantified at 590 grams).
The APRC, which comes as standard on the Aprilia RSV4 RR and RSV4 1100 Factory, includes:
- ATC: Aprilia Traction Control, adjustable on the fly (without having to release the throttle) to 8 settings thanks to a practical joystick, boasts high performance operating logic.
- AWC: Aprilia Wheelie Control, the wheelie control system that can be adjusted to 3 levels, has extremely precise operating strategies. Wheelie control can be adjusted on the fly without closing the throttle, like the ATC, thanks to the practical left side electric block.
- ALC: Aprilia Launch Control, for use on the track only, with 3 settings, uses highly effective operating strategies.
- AQS: Aprilia Quick Shift, the electronic gearbox that allows shifting without closing the throttle and without using the clutch, also equipped with the downshift function, to allow clutchless downshifting. Its open-throttle downshifting feature is exclusive.
- APL: Aprilia Pit Limiter, the system that lets you select and limit the top speed allowed in pit lane at the track or simply to make it easier to comply with posted speed limits on the road.
- ACC: Aprilia Cruise Control. Electronic management has allowed cruise control to be introduced, very convenient on longer trips because it lets you maintain the set speed without touching the throttle.
In addition to the fourth generation APRC system, RSV4 RR and Factory come as standard with advanced multimap Cornering ABS, developed in collaboration with Bosch to guarantee not only extreme safety on the road, but also the best possible performance at the circuit. With its remarkably contained weight and dimensions, the 9.1 MP system is able to optimize braking and ABS intervention through the corners, thanks to a specific algorithm that constantly monitors various parameters such as lateral acceleration, the pressure applied to the front brake lever, and the lean, pitch and yaw angle, modulating the braking action in order to better guarantee the ratio between deceleration and stability. The ABS system works in unison with the Aprilia RLM (Rear Liftup Mitigation) system that limits the lift of the rear wheel during more abrupt braking. Cornering ABS, fine tuned in accordance with Aprilia’s specific indications, is adjustable to 3 levels of sensibility. Each of the three Cornering ABS maps can be combined with any of the three engine maps (Sport, Track, Race), allowing riders with different experience and skill levels to find the best possible combination for their style. The three maps are “full power” and differ in the way they unleash the power of the Aprilia V4, in its two configurations, onto the asphalt, as well as the percentage of engine brake dedicated to each.
The colour TFT instrumentation is a true digital computer with exceptional display features. The two selectable screen pages (Road and Race, both with night and day backlighting) correspond to as many represented indexes. Available as an accessory for both the RSV4 RR and the RSV4 1100 Factory is Aprilia MIA, the Aprilia multimedia platform that allows the rider to connect a smartphone to the vehicle via Bluetooth, introducing a true corner by corner electronic settings calibration system for the first time, with data that can be subsequently downloaded to a laptop (or displayed directly on the smartphone) for analysis, just as is done at the races. Aprilia MIA is characterised by a new connection protocol that reduces smartphone battery consumption to a minimum, in addition to providing a wide range of already mapped circuit in which you can manage the electronic settings corner by corner, as well as user acquisition and timing of a new circuit that is not in the list Aprilia has provided. Aprilia MIA also includes the infotainment system, introduced by Aprilia for the first time on the RSV4, to manage voice commands and incoming/outgoing telephone calls on a smartphone. These activities are also displayed and managed by the digital instrumentation.
Aprilia RSV4 RR
Aprilia RSV4 RR represents a top shelf technical platform, ready to provide the rider with a “race replica” performance and feeling. In order to support the most demanding riders, one of the available accessories Aprilia offers is the Track kit, a package of prestigious parts that work together to improve many aspects of the RSV4 RR such as its weight, handling, aerodynamics and, last but not least, its appearance. The MY 20 version of the RSV4 RR has not undergone any technical changes with respect to the previous version.
The inimitable character and performance of the 1.0 litre Aprilia V4
The primary and unique characteristics of this 999.6 cc Italian technological gem, those that led to the creation of the best superbike of all time, are shared with the 1077 cc engine that powers the Factory version.
Power and maximum torque are respectively 201 HP at 13,000 rpm and 115 Nm at 10,500 rpm, bar-setting values that are joined by the one-of-a-kind sound, a true soundtrack offered by all Aprilia V4 engines. Like the Factory 1100 cc V4, the RR’s 1000 cc also boasts ultra lightweight pistons fitted with segments that reduce the blow-by effect in order to combine high performance and reliability. There is also a honing treatment for the connecting rod heads that contributes to reducing friction. The valve return springs also guarantee reliability during heavier work loads, while the valves benefit from optimised timing. The gearbox has a linear sensor that guarantees impeccable shifting operation, while the RSV4 RR exhaust system with double lambda probe features a silencer with integrated valve.
Chassis: Just like a real racing bike
Aprilia RSV4 perfectly represents the Aprilia tradition of packaging state of the art chassis architectures, thanks to the know-how acquired during high level international competition. The frame, with exceptional adjustment possibilities, and the swingarm both exploit pressed and cast elements that are welded to one another. The ratio between torsional stiffness and flexibility is one of the secrets behind the RSV4 chassis architecture’s success. It is the same structure that equips the Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory, although the latter boasts a different steering geometry.
The chassis architecture of the RSV4 RR is completed by a Sachs suspension trio comprising a fork with 43 mm stanchions, a shock absorber with separate “piggy back”, and a steering damper, the first two fully adjustable in terms of all their hydraulic functions and spring pre-load (the shock absorber also has a centre-to-centre length adjustment that allows the height of the rear end to be changed).
On the RSV4 RR, Aprilia offers a pair of cast aluminium wheels and a Brembo braking system that is top of line in this category: the front relies on a pair of new 5 mm thick steel discs with a diameter of 330 mm, gripped by the monobloc M50 callipers fitted with high friction coefficient brake pads.
Versions and colours
The Aprilia RSV4 RR is available in two attractive colour schemes with a black or grey base (Rivazza grey and Arrabbiata black) and with red wheel rims.
The Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory is the exclusive version that comes as standard with Öhlins semi-active suspension, lightweight aluminium forged rims and the titanium Akrapovic exhaust tailpipe. It stands out for its new dedicated Atomico Racer graphics which highlight and enhance the use of precious technical materials such as carbon, thanks to the contrast with the total black matte paint, also adding the tricolour graphics seen on the RS-GP that competes in the MotoGP world championship. The upper steering yoke enhanced with the contrasting laser etched ‘1100 Factory’ wording completes the model’s features.
Wide range of accessories
Aprilia has designed and developed a wide range of accessories for personalisation of the RSV4 RR and RSV4 1100 Factory. High-quality, select items to increase a motorbike’s performance, aesthetics or level of comfort.
Slip-on exhaust (as standard on RSV4 1100 Factory): Akrapovic by Aprilia Racing, equipped with a titanium silencer and homologated for road use. A carbon slip-on version is also available, exclusively for track use. Includes the dedicated engine mapping developed by Aprilia Racing.
Complete racing exhaust: Akrapovic by Aprilia Racing exhaust system complete with manifolds. The tailpipe is in carbon. Includes the dedicated engine mapping developed by Aprilia Racing.
ECU: Engine control unit dedicated to track use, programmed with racing maps. Specific for non-original exhaust systems (complete or only slip-on. Street legal or not) not supplied by Aprilia.
Öhlins TTX shock absorbers: the TTX line is the most prestigious of the products offered by Öhlins (top and bottom attachments are in billet aluminium). They allow full and fine adjustment across all shock absorbing functions. They can be fitted with linear sensors to install telemetry.
Öhlins steering damper: the fine adjustment of the hydraulics ensures a front end that is always stable during the most violent acceleration.
Öhlins NIX Fork: top shelf performance on the track and the road. A wide range of precision pre-load and hydraulic rebound and compression adjustments.
Components in carbon: fairings, mudguards and heel guards. Made in matte finish carbon fibre. They guarantee a sporty look and a lower overall weight.
Front brake air vents in carbon: these are easily installed on the front braking system, reducing temperatures and maintaining the same braking performance in situations of prolonged stress.
Aerodynamic appendages (as standard on RSV4 1100 Factory): created in carbon, they are the most significant expression of Aprilia Racing experience in MotoGP. Developed around the base of those that equip the RS-GP, they increase aerodynamic load and help to maintain stability at high speeds.
Lithium battery: (as standard on RSV4 1100 Factory). Allows for a weight saving of 2.5 kg with respect to the standard.
Mirror plugs: made from polyethylene, these are applied in place of mirrors when using the bike on the track.
License plate hole cover: made of laser cut aluminium, this is applied after removing the license plate bracket when using the bike on the track.
Inverted racing gear lever: this is a mechanical element that inverts the gear shifting mode in order to improve performance on track.
Forged rims (standard equipment on RSV4 1100 Factory): made from aluminium with a forging process, these provide maximum resistance and are lightweight, essential for increasing handling.
Aluminium racing levers: made in billet aluminium, they give the bike an even more aggressive look and reduce the weight of the factory component.
Handlebar counterweights: made in billet aluminium. Complete with black nylon plug and laser engraved logos. The particular construction hides the fixing screw.
Tank bag: this bag is made of technical fabric with carbon-look inserts. Tested and approved to resist oil, fuel, UV rays and not compromise stability even at high speeds.
Adjustable license plate bracket: made in laser cut steel. Includes the LED licence plate light.
Motorcycle cover: made of breathable Lycra, this cover was designed to protect your bike from dust.
Aprilia MIA kit: this installation kit for the multimedia platform dedicated to Aprilia V4 models comprises a Bluetooth control unit and all the wiring needed for installation.
The range of RSV4 RR accessories is enriched with three Track Kits that transform the bike into a perfect racing machine. The kits have been developed to increase performance of the RSV4 RR by acting in three main areas:
- Weight: lithium battery, forged wheels, Akrapovic carbon slip-on exhaust by Aprilia Racing)
- Riding efficiency: Öhlins NIX fork, Öhlins TTX rear shock absorber, Öhlins steering damper)
- Aerodynamics: front brake air vents, aerodynamic appendages, both in carbon)
APRILIA RSV4 1100 Factory: Technical Specifications
[in brackets the data referring to RSV4 RR]
|Engine type||Aprilia longitudinal 65° V-4 cylinder, 4-stroke, liquid cooling system, double overhead camshafts (DOHC), four valves per cylinder|
|Bore and stroke||81 x 52.3 mm [78 x 52.3 mm]|
|Total engine capacity||1077 cc (999.6 cc)|
|Maximum power at crankshaft||217 HP (159.6 kW) at 13,200 rpm [201 HP (148 kW) at 13,000 rpm]|
|Maximum torque at crankshaft||122 Nm at 11,000 rpm [115 Nm at 10,500 rpm]|
|Fuel system||Airbox with front dynamic air intakes. 4 Marelli 48-mm throttle bodies with 8 injectors and latest generation Ride-By-Wire engine management.
Choice of three different engine maps selectable by the rider with bike in motion: Track, Sport, Race
|Ignition||Magneti Marelli digital electronic ignition system integrated in engine control system, with one spark plug per cylinder and “stick-coil”-type coils|
|Exhaust||4 into 2 into 1 layout, two lambda probes, lateral single silencer with ECU-controlled bypass valve and integrated trivalent catalytic converter (Euro 4)|
|Alternator||Flywheel mounted 450 W alternator with rare earth magnets|
|Lubrication||Wet sump lubrication system with oil radiator and two oil pumps (lubrication and cooling)|
|Transmission||6-speed cassette type gearbox
1st: 39/15 (2.600)
2nd: 33/16 (2.063)
3rd: 34/20 (1.700)
4th: 31/21 (1.476)
5th: 34/26 (1.307) [31/23 (1.348)]
6th: 33/27 (1.222) [34/27 (1.259)]
Gear lever with Aprilia Quick Shift electronic system (AQS)
|Clutch||Multi plate wet clutch with mechanical slipper system|
|Primary drive||Straight cut gears and integrated flexible coupling, drive ratio: 73/44 (1,659)|
|Secondary drive||Chain: Drive ratio: 41/16 (2.562)|
|Traction management||APRC System (Aprilia Performance Ride Control), which includes Traction Control (ATC), Wheelie Control (AWC), Launch Control (ALC), cruise control (ACC) and speed limiter (APT), all of which can be configured and deactivated independently|
|Frame||Aluminium dual beam chassis with pressed and cast sheet elements Available adjustments:
Smart EC 2.0 electronically managed Öhlins steering damper
[Sachs steering damper]
|Front suspension||Smart EC 2.0 electronically managed Öhlins NIX fork. Æ 43 mm stanchions, with TIN surface treatment. [Sachs fork with Æ 43 mm stanchions]; Aluminium radial calliper mounting bracket. Adjustable spring pre-load and hydraulic compression and rebound damping. 125 mm [120 mm] wheel travel|
|Rear suspension||Double braced aluminium swingarm; mixed low thickness and sheet casting technology.
Öhlins TTX monoshock with Smart EC 2.0 electronically managed piggy-back, fully adjustable in: spring pre-load, wheelbase and hydraulic compression and rebound damping. [Sachs monoshock adjustable in: hydraulic compression and rebound damping, spring pre-load and centre-to-centre distance]. 115 mm [130 mm ] wheel travel.
|Brakes||Front: Dual 330-mm diameter floating stainless steel disc with lightweight stainless steel rotor and aluminium flange with 6 pins. Brembo Stylema® [M50] monobloc radial callipers with 4 Æ 30 mm opposing pistons. Sintered pads. Radial pump and metal braided brake hose|
|Rear: 220 mm diameter disc; Brembo calliper with two Æ 32 mm separate pistons. Sintered pads. Pump with integrated tank and metal braided hose
Bosch 9.1 MP ABS with cornering function, adjustable to 3 maps equipped with RLM (Rear wheel Lift-up Mitigation) (can be disabled).
|Wheels||Forged aluminium alloy wheels, completely machined, with 5 split spoke design. [Aprilia in aluminium alloy wheels with 3 split spoke design].
front: 120/70 ZR 17
rear: 200/55 ZR 17 (alternative: 190/50 ZR 17; 190/55 ZR 17)
|Wheelbase: 1439 mm [1441.6 mm]
Length: 2052 mm [2055 mm]
Width: 735 mm
Saddle height: 851 mm [853 mm]
Headstock angle: 24.5° [24.6°]
Trail: 103.8 mm [101.9 mm]
|177 kg [180 kg]
199 kg [204 kg] with a full tank
|Consumption||6.50 litres/100 km [6.67 litres/100 km]|
|CO2 emissions||155 g/km [156 g/km]|
|Fuel tank capacity||18.5 litres (including 4-litre reserve)|